How to test lithium battery

Release time: Sep 28, 2023

After a series of complicated and precise steps in making it. The last challenge for lithium batteries will be the Quality and Performance Tests. Here is a more detailed explanation of how batteries are made.

Lithium batteries are a product that needs to be both safe and of good quality. Consumers often don't know how well the battery works when they are using it. This means that the battery often doesn't work as well as it could when being used. Even if you don't know what you're doing, you can sometimes make a battery explode, which can be dangerous to your life. Because of this, it is important to know how the battery works.

Lithium batteries are tested for their voltage, internal resistance, capacity, internal voltage, rate of self-discharge, number of cycles, ability to seal, safety, ability to store, look, etc. Up to 230 questions are on the performance test. As well as overcharging, overdischarging, being able to be welded, being resistant to rust, etc.

Here is a detailed explanation of some of the important tests.

13 Ways to Test Lithium Batteries

How to Use a Multimeter to Test a Lithium-ion Battery: Steps and Voltage

Batteries are an important part of our daily lives, and everyone on the planet needs them. So, it's always a good idea to take care of the battery you have to get many benefits. Taking care of batteries is an easy process that anyone can do.

Testing the battery is one of the most important parts of keeping it in good shape. It is the best way to find out how the battery is doing and figure out why some batteries fail. A voltmeter is one of the tools we use to test the battery.

A multimeter is a mechanical tool that can measure current, voltage, and resistance. The voltmeter is also known as a VOM, which stands for voltage-ohm-milliammeter. There are two kinds of multimeters: an analog one that shows readings with a moving pointer and a digital one with an LED display that shows correct readings.

Digital multimeters are the most popular type because they are easy to use and give accurate readings. At least once a month, you should check the battery. This will let you know when the battery is getting weak. So, in this great piece of writing, we'll take a look at how to use a voltmeter to test a battery.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy is used to describe chemical bonds.

This method of characterizing gives us important information about the unique chemical bonds of lithium. Information is used to learn more about things like oxidative breakdown, which can affect how well and how much a battery works.

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) is a way to find out what is in something.

This mix of analytical methods is good for testing the makeup of electrolytic solutions because it is fast and accurate. It's sensitive enough to offer ultra-trace detection limits, so scientists can find even the smallest amounts of cyclic carbonates in electrolytic solutions. This is important because the amounts of cyclic carbonates like ethyl methyl carbonate and ethylene carbonate can have a big effect on the energy density and stability of a battery.

GC/MS is also used to look at the gases that lithium ion cells give off. Data can show how components wear out, which is generally caused by charging and discharging them over and over again. The Clarus SQ 8 GC/MS system from PerkinElmer is an example of a next-generation technology. It lets people change settings like dynamic range and sensitivity to get the best results.

With these kinds of improvements, engineers can make lithium-ion batteries that are strong enough to power the wheels of a Tesla. EV technology will be a key part of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dealing with the air pollution problem over the next 10 years. Technologies that use sour gas to make hydrogen, like H2S splitting, will also improve. Experts say that the demand for H2S splitting facilities will go up as the world continues to use hydrogen as an alternative energy source.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used for thermal research.

Thermal measurement methods like DSC can be used to solve problems like performance loss. Most of the time, these kinds of problems are caused by problems with the divider. DSC is used to look at the melting profile and other features of separators.

Test for self-discharge

The test for a lithium cell's ability to drain itself is:

Most of the time, 24 hours of self-discharge is used to quickly test how well it holds its charge.

Step 1: Discharge the battery to 3.0V at a rate of 0.2C. Then charge it to 4.2V at a rate of 1C with steady current and voltage. For the experiment to work, the cut-off current needs to be 10mA.

Step 2: Put the cell on a shelf for 15 minutes.

Step 3: Discharged the cell at a rate of 1C until the voltage dropped to 3.0V.

Step 4: Measure how much it can release as C1

Step 5: Charge the cell battery to 4.2V at a charge rate of 1C with steady current and voltage. Set the current to cut off to 100mA.

Step 6: Put the cell away for a day

Step 7: Measure how much it can hold as C2

If "(C2/C1)*100%" is less than 99%, the test is passed.

How to Measure Internal Resistance

When the battery is running, the internal resistance is the amount of resistance to the flow of electricity through the battery. Most of the time, it is broken up into AC internal resistance and DC internal resistance.

Because rechargeable batteries have a low internal resistance, it is easy to polarize the electrode when measuring the DC internal resistance. This makes the internal resistance of polarization. So, you can't find out what its true value is. However, if you measure its AC internal resistance, you can get rid of the effect of polarization internal resistance and find out what its true internal value is.

The way to test AC internal resistance is:

Characteristics of the experiment: the battery is the same as an active resistor,

Step 1: Give a steady current of 1000Hz and 50mA to the battery.

Step 2: Take a set of voltage measurements

Step 3: Write "R=U/I"

IEC Standard Life Test on a Cycle:

IEC says that the usual test for the number of times lithium batteries can be used is:

Step 1: Discharge the battery to 3.0V at a rate of 0.2C. Then charge it to 4.2V at a rate of 1C with steady current and voltage. For the experiment to work, the cut-off current needs to be 20mA.

Step 2: Put the cell away for at least an hour.

Step 3: Discharge the battery until it reads 3.0V at a rate of 0.2C.

Step 4: Use C1 to measure how much it can hold.

Step 5: Do the previous steps at least 500 times.

If "(C500/C1)*100%" is less than 60%, this cell passes.

Test for internal pressure:

(UL standard) The test for the voltage inside a lithium battery is:

The fake battery is 15240m above sea level, where the air pressure is low (11.6kPa), to see if it leaks or bulges.

Step-by-step instructions: Charge the battery 1C to 4.2V with a constant current and voltage, with a cut-off current of 10mA, and then store it for 6 hours in a low-voltage box with a pressure of 11.6kPa and a temperature of 203°C. The battery won't blow up, catch on fire, break, or leak.

Drop Test

From the name, we can tell that this test is meant to make a battery fall. This test is important to make sure the battery doesn't get broken quickly.

Step 1: Charge the battery pack all the way up.

Step 2: Drop the battery from a height of 1 m in different directions on the hard rubber sheet.

Step 3: Repeat the steps above two or three times.

This battery pack passes the test if the way it works electrically is normal and the outside package is not broken.

Test for Vibration

The way to test lithium batteries that vibrate is:

Discharge the battery at a rate of 0.2C until it's at 3.0V, then charge it to 4.2V at a rate of 1C with a steady current and voltage. For the experiment to work, the cut-off current needs to be 10mA. After 24 hours of sitting on a shelf, it will be shaken in the following ways:

1. Pitch, 0.8 mm;

2. Make the battery move between 10HZ and 55HZ, going up or down at a rate of 1HZ per minute;

3. When the battery is shaken, the change in voltage should be between 0.02V, and the change in internal resistance should be between 5m.

The lithium battery pack needs to be shaken constantly and randomly for 21 hours in temperatures from -30°C to 60°C. This can be thought of as mimicking driving fatigue from hundreds of thousands of kilometers.

The shaker is used to make the battery pack feel like it is on a rough road, which it will be when it is actually used.

The environmental box is used to make settings with different temperatures.

The charging and draining motor is used to make the charging and discharging process work in real life.

With temperature and load, these three parts make up a shaking test system that is very close to what happens when a real car is being driven.

The goal is to keep the battery from shaking because of bumpy roads, which can lead to bad battery products that don't fit well. The battery can fail safely if it has loose parts or a cracked case. Because of this, national guidelines say that power batteries must be tested for vibration.

Test of Fire

Metals like lead and zinc have already melted in oil and gas explosions that are very hot. But the battery pack has to face this "survival" task at such high temperatures.

In this extreme and dangerous test, the industry's national standard is that the outside fire burns for 130 seconds and the battery doesn't catch fire or burst.

With such a thorough fire test, there will be no risk of the battery exploding even if there is a fire or the car catches on fire. This will keep other people from getting hurt.

The test of lithium batteries in high heat and humidity

Step 1: Use the 1C charge rate and a steady current to charge the battery to 4.2V. Set the current to 10mA for the cut-off.

Step 2: Put the battery in the box and leave it there for 48 hours. Keep the temperature between 38 and 42°C and the humidity between 90% and 95%.

Step 3: Pull the battery out.

Step 4: Set the battery aside for 2 hours at room temperature (between 20°C and 5°C).

Step 5: Look at the battery and make sure it doesn't look strange in any way.

Step 6: Drain the battery to 2.75V at a rate of 1C.

Step 7: Charge the battery at a rate of 1C.

Step 8: Check the capacity of the battery, which shouldn't be less than 85% of its original capacity.

Step 9: Take the test again, but only up to three times.

Hit Test

Step 1: Give the battery a full charge.

Step 2: Put a hard rod with a width of 15.8 mm horizontally on top of the battery.

Step 3: Drop a heavy item that weighs 20 pounds from a height of 610mm until it hits the hard rod.

The battery passes this test if it doesn't blow up, catch fire, or leak liquid.

Test of Acupuncture

When the battery shorts out, there is a lot of danger. When a short circuit happens, the battery will drain through the point of the short circuit. When a large amount of energy is released quickly through the short circuit point, the temperature rises quickly, and in the worst cases, the battery will catch fire and explode.

Needle Requirement: According to safety rules,

Steel needle that can handle high temperatures

Size: 6 to 10mm

45° to 60° at the tip of the needle for the cone angle.

There is no rust, oxide layer, or oil spots on the surface.

Step 1: Find the spot where a needle can cause thermal runaway.

Step 2: Make a hole in a single cell.

Step 3: Leave the needle in the cell for about an hour.

Step 4: Take the needle out and watch for an hour.

If the hole doesn't cause the cell to catch fire or blow up, the cell is good.

In short, the main cause of battery heat runaway is that the needle breaks up the battery's internal structure, causing short circuits between the positive and negative electrode plates.

At this point, the energy will be quickly released through the short-circuit point, causing the temperature to rise quickly in a short amount of time.

In the battery, the SEI film and the anode electrode material start to break down and give off heat. The diaphragm then breaks down and melts.

The cathode electrode and the liquid will eventually break down. The temperature keeps going up, which is called "thermal runaway."


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